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Prohibited Methods


The International Standard The Prohibited List includes substances and methods prohibited in sport, both in-competition and out-of-competition.

The prohibited methods are:

М1. Manipulation of blood and blood components.

М2. Chemical and physical manipulation.

М3. Gene and cell doping.

М1. Manipulation of blood and its components:

  1. Blood transfusion as well as the introduction of red blood cells of any origin (including one's own, such as in blood plasma donation) into the circulatory system.
  2. Artificially enhancing the consumption, transport or delivery of oxygen. Including, but not limited to: perfluorinated compounds, efaproxiral (RSR13), voxelotor and modified hemoglobin preparations, for example hemoglobin-based blood substitutes, microencapsulated hemoglobin. The exception is oxygen inhalation.
  3. Any form of intravascular manipulation of blood or blood components by physical or chemical methods. For example, intravenous laser irradiation of blood.

М2. Chemical and physical manipulation:

  1. Tampering with or attempting to tamper with samples collected as part of a doping control procedure in order to compromise their integrity and authenticity. For example: sample manipulation, altering sample properties to make it more difficult to analyze.
  2. Intravenous infusions and/or injections of more than 100 mL over a 12-hour period, except in the case of inpatient treatment, surgical procedures or clinical diagnosis.

М3. Gene and cell doping:

  1. The use of nucleic acids or nucleic acid analogs that can alter genome sequences and/or alter gene expression by any mechanism. This includes, but is not limited to, gene editing, repression of gene expression, and gene transfer technologies.
  2. Use of normal or genetically modified cells.

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