The International Standard The Prohibited List includes substances and methods prohibited in sport, both in-competition and out-of-competition.
The prohibited methods are:
М1. Manipulation of blood and blood components.
М2. Chemical and physical manipulation.
М3. Gene and cell doping.
М1. Manipulation of blood and its components:
- Blood transfusion as well as the introduction of red blood cells of any origin (including one's own, such as in blood plasma donation) into the circulatory system.
- Artificially enhancing the consumption, transport or delivery of oxygen. Including, but not limited to: perfluorinated compounds, efaproxiral (RSR13), voxelotor and modified hemoglobin preparations, for example hemoglobin-based blood substitutes, microencapsulated hemoglobin. The exception is oxygen inhalation.
- Any form of intravascular manipulation of blood or blood components by physical or chemical methods. For example, intravenous laser irradiation of blood.
М2. Chemical and physical manipulation:
- Tampering with or attempting to tamper with samples collected as part of a doping control procedure in order to compromise their integrity and authenticity. For example: sample manipulation, altering sample properties to make it more difficult to analyze.
- Intravenous infusions and/or injections of more than 100 mL over a 12-hour period, except in the case of inpatient treatment, surgical procedures or clinical diagnosis.
М3. Gene and cell doping:
- The use of nucleic acids or nucleic acid analogs that can alter genome sequences and/or alter gene expression by any mechanism. This includes, but is not limited to, gene editing, repression of gene expression, and gene transfer technologies.
- Use of normal or genetically modified cells.
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